Original research

The utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in a community with a high HIV and tuberculosis burden

S Eknewir, T J John, S M Bennji, C F N Koegelenberg

Abstract


Background. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become the gold standard in diagnosing and performing nodal staging in patients with suspected lung cancer and diagnosing other malignant and benign diseases. Studies from countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence suggest that it has a sensitivity of 90 - 95% and a specificity of 100%.

Objectives. To investigate the utility of EBUS-TBNA in a community with a high HIV and TB burden.

Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA to confirm a tissue diagnosis during a 2-year period from January 2017 - December 2018. Only patients with complete medical, pathology and radiology records and follow-up were included.

Results. During the 2 years, a total of 201 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA. Some patients (n=19) had incomplete notes or follow-up and 104 cases were ultimately diagnosed with benign nodal disease. In the 182 patients who were ultimately included in the present study, EBUSTBNA had a sensitivity of 95.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 88.6 - 98.2), specificity of 100% (95% CI 94.20 - 100), positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.00% (95% CI 95.3 - 100) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.1% (95% CI 86.0 - 97.8) for all diagnoses. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 97.3% (95% CI 93.9 - 99.2). Out of the 64 patients who had lung cancer, EBUS-TBNA had a sensitivity of 95.2% (95% CI 86.7 - 99.0), specificity of 100% (95% CI 5.5 - 100), PPV of 100.0% and NPV of 58.3% (95% CI 31.7 - 80.9). The overall diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer was 95.5% (95% CI 87.2 - 99.1%).

Conclusion. EBUS-TBNA has high diagnostic accuracy, even in a population with a high HIV and TB burden. 


Authors' affiliations

S Eknewir, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

T J John, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

S M Bennji, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

C F N Koegelenberg, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

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Cite this article

African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine 2022;28(1):25.

Article History

Date submitted: 2022-05-04
Date published: 2022-05-05

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African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine| Online ISSN: 2617-0205

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