Guidelines

Diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia in children: South African Thoracic Society guidelines

H J Zar, D P Moore, S Andronikou, A C Argent, T Avenant, C Cohen, R J Green, G Itzikowitz, P Jeena, R Masekela, M P Nicol, A Pillay, G Reubenson, S A Madhi

Abstract


Background. Pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst South African children. More comprehensive
immunisation regimens, strengthening of HIV programmes, improvement in socioeconomic conditions and new preventive strategies
have impacted on the epidemiology of pneumonia. Furthermore, sensitive diagnostic tests and better sampling methods in young children
improve aetiological diagnosis.
Objective. To produce revised guidelines for pneumonia in South African children under 5 years of age.
Methods. The Paediatric Assembly of the South African Thoracic Society and the National Institute for Communicable Diseases established
seven expert subgroups to revise existing South African guidelines focusing on: (i) epidemiology; (ii) aetiology; (iii) diagnosis; (iv) antibiotic
management and supportive therapy; (v) management in intensive care; (vi) prevention; and (vii) considerations in HIV-infected or HIVexposed,
uninfected (HEU) children. Each subgroup reviewed the published evidence in their area; in the absence of evidence, expert
opinion was accepted. Evidence was graded using the British Thoracic Society (BTS) grading system. Sections were synthesized into an
overall guideline which underwent peer review and revision.
Recommendations. Recommendations include a diagnostic approach, investigations, management and preventive strategies. Specific
recommendations for HIV infected and HEU children are provided.
Validation. The guideline is based on available published evidence supplemented by the consensus opinion of SA paediatric experts.
Recommendations are consistent with those in published international guidelines.


Authors' affiliations

H J Zar, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; South African Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa

D P Moore, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

S Andronikou, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Pediatric Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Philadephia, USA

A C Argent, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

T Avenant, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa

C Cohen, Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa

R J Green, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa

G Itzikowitz, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

P Jeena, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

R Masekela, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

M P Nicol, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa; and Division of Infection and Immunity, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

A Pillay, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

G Reubenson, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

S A Madhi, South African Medical Research Council Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Analytics Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: South African Research Chair in Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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Cite this article

African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine 2020;26(3):.

Article History

Date submitted: 2020-08-04
Date published: 2020-08-04

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African Journal of Thoracic and Critical Care Medicine| Online ISSN: 2617-0205

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